关注2010维也纳新年音乐会

  继续维持传统,第六次写名为关注xxxx维也纳新年音乐会的Blog。前几篇在:2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

  昨天Südwestrundfunk(德国西南广播电台)在网站公布了2010年维也纳新年音乐会的曲目单,如下:

  01 - Johann Strauss II - Die Fledermaus; Overtüre - 蝙蝠序曲

  02 - Josef Strauss - Frauenherz; Polka Mazur; op. 166 - 女人心玛祖卡波尔卡

  03 - Johann Strauss II - Im Krapfenwald'l; Polka francaise; op. 336 - 在克拉芬得森林法兰西波尔卡

  04 - Johann Strauss II - Stürmisch in Lieb' und Tanz; Polka schnell; op. 393 - 激烈的爱情与舞蹈快速波尔卡

  05 - Johann Strauss II - Wein, Weib und Gesang; Walzer; op. 333 - 美酒、女人和歌圆舞曲

  06 - Johann Strauss II - Perpetuum mobile; Polka; op. 257 - 无穷动波尔卡

  07 - Otto Nicolai - Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor; Ouvertüre - 愉快的温沙妇人序曲

  08 - Johann Strauss II - Wiener Bonbons; Walzer; op. 307 - 维也纳糖果圆舞曲

  09 - Hans Christian Lumbye - Champagner Galopp - 香槟加洛普

  10 - Johann Strauss II - Ein Herz, ein Sinn; Polka Mazur; op. 323 - 一心一意玛祖卡波尔卡

  11 - Johann Strauss I - Der Karneval in Paris; op. 100 - 巴黎狂欢节加洛普

  12 - Jacques Offenbach - Ouvertüre zu "Die Feen vom Rhein" - 歌剧《莱茵河的仙女》序曲

  13 - Eduard Strauss - "Die schöne Helena"; Quadrille; op. 14 - 根据轻歌剧《美丽的海伦》改编的四对舞舞曲

  14 - Johann Strauss II - Morgenblätter; Walzer; op. 279 - 晨报圆舞曲

  15 - Johann Strauss II - Champagner-Polka; op. 211 - 香槟波尔卡

  16 - Johann Strauss II - An der schönen blauen Donau; Walzer; op. 314 - 蓝色多瑙河圆舞曲

  17 - Johann Strauss I - Radetzky-Marsch; op. 228 - 拉德茨基进行曲

  指挥2010年维也纳新年音乐会的是86岁的法国指挥乔治·普列特 (Georges Prêtre),他曾经在两年前执棒2008年维也纳新年音乐会。在那一届音乐会上,加演曲目《运动快速波尔卡》中,普列特拿出了足球比赛中使用的黄牌与首席小提琴开起了玩笑。乐曲结束,首席小提琴终于“忍无可忍”,从口袋中掏出红牌,把指挥罚下了指挥台。这可以算是指挥和维也纳爱乐乐团给2008年在奥地利举行的欧州杯足球赛做了一个出色的广告。

  2010年的演出曲目中选择了不少经典的曲目,比如开场曲蝙蝠序曲就曾经在1980,1987,1989,1999,2002等年份多次演出,无穷动波尔卡也是一首很有特色的经典曲目。期待新一年的新年音乐会给这些经典的曲目带来新的演绎。

  跟往年一样,每年的新年音乐会也会引入一些从来没有新年音乐会上演出过的曲目。2010年新年音乐会一共有4首新的曲目,在曲目单中以*标识。第一首是丹麦作曲家Lumbye的香槟加洛普,2010是Lumbye的200年诞辰纪念,Lumbye是一位擅长写作圆舞曲、波尔卡、马祖卡和加洛普的音乐家。香槟加洛普以打开香槟酒瓶的声音作为乐曲的开头,是他最著名的作品之一。这首香槟加洛普将与后面的香槟波尔卡遥相呼引,成为这个曲目单一个小小的悬念,为什么会在一场音乐会中选择两首与香槟有关的乐曲呢?奥芬巴赫的歌剧序曲也是常常入选新年音乐会的非施特劳斯家族的乐曲,这次选择的是他的歌剧《莱茵河的仙女》的序曲。爱德华的四对舞舞曲既是本次新年音乐会上的一个新曲,也是曲目单中唯一的一首他的作品。

  曲目单上出现了不少的序曲,但除了结尾的拉德茨基进行曲以外,居然没有别的进行曲出现,导致了不少乐迷的质疑,有此人甚至用“乱七八糟”来表述这次的曲目安排。不过对我来说,维也纳新年音乐会这场传统的音乐盛宴很多时候已经成了一种期待、一个符号,关注的是她带给我的新的一年的气息和感受,每一年,只有欣赏过了维也纳新年音乐会,才真正体会到了新年的到来,春天的临近。

  如果没有意外,2010的维也纳新年音乐会仍将由中央电视台音乐频道在元旦的晚上的18:00进行直播。这年头,数字电视和音乐频道的普及率比3年前已经高了很多,相信大部分乐迷都不会再次为收不到音乐频道而苦恼了。一直担任新年音乐会解说的“赵老师”今年故事多多,不知道是不是还会继续成为2010年新年音乐会的解说,这么多年,还真是已经习惯了他的解说风格。

  2010年的唱片应该继续由Decca出版,不过目前为止还没有看到CD的封面长成什么样子,如果有看到的朋友,希望能共享一下。

  下面开始跑题……

  今天Mp3tag软件发布了2.45版本。Mp3tag是一个用于整理、修改、获取音乐文件的Tag信息软件。这个软件相对于刚开始用的人来说可能不是非常好用,但是一旦会用了,就会非常的高效,而且它的功能也非常强大,甚至支持写简单的脚本来控制软件的工作。推荐给拥有大量音乐文件需要管理的朋友。不过如果你觉得iTunes或Windows Media Player的音乐库管理已经足够好用,可以无视本软件。这个软件的中文汉化界面是由我在维护,如果发现软件界面翻译有问题,欢迎指正。

  Mp3tag 2.45的下载网址:http://download.mp3tag.de/mp3tagv245setup.exe

生活在Linux中

  昨天被一个小问题折腾了很久很久,决定把它记下来。

  原本用的好好的Debian GNU/Linux 5 (Lenny),在经历了以下操作后出现了问题:更新了一下系统;安装配置了NetworkManager;把内核从2.6.31.5升级到2.6.31.6(同时把内核选项中的CPU类型由686改成CORE2); 把ATI显卡驱动从9.10升级到9.11。出现的问题是:重启或注销GNOME时系统失去响应;Firefox在链接上点右键,菜单弹出前软件失去响应。

  为了排除这两个问题,做了很多的努力:Google寻找解决方案;把内核恢复到老版本;把CPU类型恢复成686重新编译内核;降级显卡驱动;重新配置Xorg.conf;以上几种方案的各种组合……均无果而终。(重点怀疑显卡驱动的原因是ATI的fglrx驱动在新内核中总是会触发一些oops)

  山穷水尽之际,决定用strace看看Firefox在弹出菜单时到底在做什么事,为什么会卡住。

connect(88, {sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(16001), sin_addr=inet_addr("127.0.0.1")}, 16...

  127.0.0.1……我自己ping了一下这个本机回环地址,Request timed out。啊……

  原来,这次安装了NetworkManager后发现它不工作,查了一下才知道只要是在/etc/network/interfaces中有配置的网卡都不会被NetworkManager管理,于是不管三七二十一把interfaces这个配置文件给清空了。遗憾的是原本在interfaces配置文件中配置的Loop Back网卡lo不会被NetworkManger管理的,于是127.0.0.1这个地址就不通了。

  这个故事也告诉我们,lo网卡在Linux中非常重要。

  1999年第一次安装Linux,2006年参加工作开始试图把Linux作为日常的操作系统,到目前为止,却还是没有办法完全离开Windows。不过对于Linux的看法早就已经从欣喜的发现“Linux也能做这件事”演变成了“遗憾,Linux还做不了这件事”,或者,更确切的说“遗憾,Linux还不能兼容这个东西”。毕竟,外面的世界还不是这么美好。Linux自身做为桌面系统来说,也还有不少的路要走。

  昨天Google开会正式介绍了深度整合Linux和浏览器的操作系统Chrome OS,大概在一年多前在参加UCDChina书友会时,大家就曾经聊到过浏览器是不是可能变成操作系统,在来看来,这个理想已经更接近现实了。第一时间下载了Chrome OS镜像在VMware上体验。不过实话说,现在所看到的Chrome OS并没有给人特别惊喜,几乎纯粹Web OS的概念很领先,但就目前来看似乎并不具备足够的吸引力,毕竟现在Web还没有能力提供足够丰富和复杂的应用。更不提那众所周之原因所导致的Chrome OS的桌面无法打开,一些应用无法正常访问了。

  跑题了……

Which areaes kernel contributors focused on

I’ve made a new kind of analysis for Linux Kernel contributions. It tells us the contributors, such as IBM, Intel, Oracle and Fujitsu etc., were focusing on what kind of areas/subsystems of kernel to make their contributions.

As we know, Linux Kernel have a lot of different kind of active contributors including Non-profit and corporations. For corporations, there are also lots of different kinds and make the contribution be done on different kernel subsystems. We can simply attribute the corporations to distro vendor, hardware vendor, software vender and IT vendor, and pick up some representative corporations from each class to see what those giants are interesting in and bring them on contributing.

1) Distro Venders which sell Linux Distributions and provide support service

a) Red Hat

  • kernel/trace/:  No surprise that an OS development company uses a lot of effort to focus on how to monitor and debug kernel.
  • arch/[x86|sparc*|ia64|powerpc|x86_64]/:  As we will see, although other companies also cover some parts of arches,  such as x86(Intel), PowerPC(IBM) and ia64(SGI), no one completely covers so many arches as a kernel contributor. A distro vendor should take care of arch code as seriously as platform vender.
  • drivers/[net|char|scsi|media|ata|md|...]/:  Also no surprise, although some hardware vendors provide Linux driver for their products, distro vendors still need to take care of some orphan devices or integration bugs.
  • fs/gfs2/:  Not only as a Distro Vender, Red Hat plays some role of IT vendor too and provide integrated solution for costumers. The Red Hat’s product – GFS is the file system which used for manage cluster servers for enterprise deployment.
  • Red Hat are involved in a lot of other areas to which the contributions are not as shining as those mentioned before, however they are still huge ones compared to the contributions of companies after TOP10 contribution. Details can be referred by the KPS statistic data.

b) Novell

  • sound/pci/: As Novell claimed “SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop is the market’s only enterprise-quality Linux desktop”, SUSE also aims on desktop market. Providing great sound subsystem seems be consistent to that target.
  • drivers/*/: Also consistent to the desktop market target, Novell provides more driver development efforts than Red Hat. Greg KH as one of the Novell employee costs a big part of his time on Staging Drivers to help Linux Kernel to support more and more new cool drivers.
  • fs/fuse/:  I can’t see obvious reason that why Novell support fuse such dedicated.

2) Hardware Venders which mainly sell hardware for profit.

a) Intel

  • drivers/net/:  Who are the biggest NIC and Wireless NIC vendors on the world? I think Intel must be one of the them.
  • drivers/acpi/:  As the biggest platform vendor, Intel leads the hardware and software development of power management.
  • arch/[i386|ia64|x86_64]/:  Who made the CPUs? As the biggest CPU manufactory, Intel should take care the arches which her CPUs support.

b) Renesas

  • arch/sh/:  SuperH arch’s biggest manufactory supports the sh kernel without any surprise.

c)  Analog Devices

  • arch/blackfin/: Most of her efforts focus on her own platform – blackfin.

3) Software Venders which mainly sell software(except OS) and service for profit.

a) Oracle (before acquiring Sun, Oracle is more like a software vendor)

  • fs/[btrfs|ocfs2|nfs]/: As the biggest OSS contributor of software vendor, Oracle is carrying a lot of OSS projects on. The Linux kernel filesystems are just the typical area Oracle is focusing on. As a database maker, Oracle is enforcing some filesystems of Linux Kernel and keeping creating new filesystems to tie in with their database or middleware products.
  • block/:  No surprise, Oracle should not only spend efforts on fs subsystems and also block IO subsystems to support their database solutions.

b)  Parallels

  • net/[ipv4|ipv6|core]/:  As a virtualization software maker, Paralles’s engineers did a lot of jobs to refine network namespace, which can support network virtualization better.

4) IT Venders which sell whole solutions including hardware, OS, middleware and applications, and of course service for profit.

a) IBM

  • arch/[powerpc|s390|ppc64]/: IBM created those arches and provided Linux kernel which can be run on those platforms.
  • kernel/:  As the No.2 kernel contributor following Red Hat, IBM did a lot of work to core kernel part, such as kernel synchronism, cpu control, kprobe and etc.
  • fs/[cifs|ext3|ext4]/: IBM also hired some active community engineers who work on filesystem area. As we all know, Ted is working as ext3/4 maintainer, IBM employee and TLF consultant.
  • Linux Test Project: Although my statistic analysis only includes kernel source code, the great work of LTP makes me have to mention it. As a synchronous-with-kernel and individual project, LTP keeps updating its test cases for kernel and makes a lot of Linux related IT vendors to have a easy day to do QA work for kernel. The LTP project is a special contribution to Linux Kernel.

b) SGI

  • fs/xfs/:  As a product of SGI, XFS got wonderful support from SGI. A storage solution and HPC vendor taking some efforts on filesystems is totally unsurprising.
  • mm/:  Former SGI employee Christoph Lameter did a lot of contribution to memory management subsystem.
  • arch/ia64/: SGI and HP are the initiators of IA64, thus for IA64, SGI did a lot of work as well as HP, Intel.

c) Fujitsu (my former employer :) )

  • kernel/trace/: As a whole IT solution vendor, Fujitsu are doing a lot of work to enhance Linux Kernel’s trace and debug features to provide customer a more robust, maintainable and higher availabilty IT environment.
  • drivers/pci/:  During integration, Fujitsu enhances drivers to ensure a high quality hardware environment of server.
  • mm/:  Memory controller is maintained by Fujitsu and Google engineers to provide user a more flexible IT environment.

As we can see, corporations are dedicating themselves to kernel contribution for their product lines or services and trying to feed back to community when they gain from community. They are taking the responsibility to make sure the enterprise using components of kernel to be as healthy as customers want.

Let’s see the non-profit contributors are focusing on what areas, which maybe different from that of corporations.

Hobbyists (No one pays them for doing kernel contribution)

  • drivers/media/:  As we know, no commercial companies focused on this area. But hobbyists committed 3818 patches(2.4% of total patches of kernel since Linux-2.6.12) to drivers/media/. That  is the amazing phenomena that desktop users are doing such great works to kernel development.
  • drivers/[net|ide|staging|usb|video]: A lot of hobbyists are taking care of the stuff which enterprise users maybe don’t want to care.
  • arch/[x86|arm]/:  The hobbyists’ most favorite platforms are x86 and arm :)

That’s the brief introduction about who are interesting in what subsystem of kernel.

For detail information about other corporations and non-profit population who are not mentioned here, such as Google, HP, Academics etc. please refer to the statistic.

Canonical copyright assignment

Canonical由于对内核社区的贡献很少,曾经受到Greg老大的点名批评。但是Ubuntu的高用户体验,以及我所知道的一些在Canonical工作的朋友对社区的贡献,让我感觉到Canonical是一家真正想做开源的同时又使用私有软件来提高发布版质量的开源公司。

但最近Canonical发布的新条款,让人不禁对此产生怀疑。难道Canonical只是一家利用开源做私有软件的公司?

新条款确实有一些不厚道的地方,可能会减少Ubuntu粉丝的贡献度。比如:Canonical will ordinarily make the Assigned Contributions available to the public under a “Free Software Licence”, according to the definition of that term published by the Free Software Foundation from time to time. Canonical may also, in its discretion, make the Assigned Contributions available to the public under other license terms. 很多开源贡献者并不想把自己的代码交给那些会把它变成”Free Software Licence”的人,更何况,根据本条款,Canonical还可以把其他许可权条款加到代码上,而“其他许可权”很有可能就是私有软件许可权。

Canonical会不会在未来进一步对这个新条款做解释,我们将拭目以待。